There are several factors that can lead to infertility among women. One of the most typical causes of infertility is due to damage done to fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes play a very important role in fertilization as they have to be clear and open in order for the egg and sperm to successfully meet. In case of the fallopian tubes being blocked or unclear, then it might cause several problems resulting in infertility. The most typical causes for the blockage of the fallopian tubes are due to the presence of scar tissue and adhesions in the pelvic region.
These adhesions may occur due to various reasons such as endometriosis, family history, previous surgeries and conditions such as pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic adhesions can also be present or get formed in the uterus causing problems for the implantation of the embryo which is necessary for fertilization. To determine the seriousness and extent of pelvic adhesions, the doctor has to enquire and find the history of the patient and her family and learn about the causes of adhesions which could be infections, surgeries or any such problems.
When a doctor has to test for tubal obstruction, then a hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is done, which is a X-ray where a dye is sent into the fallopian tubes to determine if they are blocked. A hysterosonogram may also be performed, which is a transvaginal ultrasound test that is done in order to view the uterus. A vaginal probe is used to perform an ultrasound and then a saline solution is slowly injected into the uterus to help delineate the contents of the uterus. It is recommended to have this test done during the second week of the menstrual cycle as this timing would most likely mean that the woman is not pregnant during the course of the procedure and hence the uterine cavity can be viewed in a much clearer manner. Initially a ultrasound probe is used to check the uterus and the ovaries and then a vaginal probe is inserted into the vagina. A small piece of tissue is taken and examined to determine if there are any abnormal cells present in the vagina. The side effects of hysterosonogram are not usually observed in many women and even if side effects such as vaginal bleeding and cramps exist, they are not serious and usually disappear after a few days.
Hysteroscopy a medical procedure which is done with the help of an instrument called hysteroscope. It is similar to a telescope which is inserted into the uterus through the cervix to get a clear view of the uterine cavity. The doctor can make out the presence of polyps, fibroids and any such abnormalities with the help of this test. This test is performed after the menstruation period as there is no chance of a pregnancy occurring at that time. These are a few of the conditions that can cause women infertility and treatment methods that are usually used to reduce or check for female infertility.